The reform of the power system continues the successful experience of China's reform and Opening-up - first, the classified reform, which effectively implements the "dual track system" of planned electricity and market electricity for a period of time; second, the incremental reform, "the old method for the old and the new method for the new", and third, encouraging all regions to carry out exploration and innovation to a certain extent under the general framework according to the actual situation, It's half "crossing the river by feeling the stone". This article focuses on the understanding of the first "dual track system"
Zhongfa No. 9 proposed to "promote the reform of power generation and utilization plan and give more play to the role of market mechanism". Among them, the power utilization plan was not proposed much when the power supply was sufficient before, and the administrative management was generally "orderly power utilization". More plans were on the power generation side, that is, the distribution of basic electricity, and certain policy and industrial guidance were carried out on the basis of reflecting the "three public utilities", For example, more utilization hours for high parameter and large capacity units and ultra-low emission transformation units
in the supporting document "opinions on the implementation of the plan for orderly discharge and development of electricity", it is further elaborated as "establishing a preferential power purchase system" and "establishing a preferential power generation system", and the content, scope of application and safeguard measures of preferential power generation are detailed and clear. Among them, the power consumption side (preferential power purchase) is basically a "new thing", and basically all of them are power consumption of three industries (accounting for a small proportion) and obligations, so everyone does not pay much attention; The power generation side (priority power generation) defines the first and second priority guarantee types. Unlike the No. 9 document, which only "ensures the maintenance of peak load regulation, frequency regulation and safe operation of electricity, and ensures the guaranteed acquisition of renewable energy power generation in accordance with the plan", the first priority power generation also includes the "heat determines electricity" cogeneration units, and the second priority power generation includes more, even "ultra-low emission coal-fired units", After all thermal power plants achieve ultra-low emissions, they will basically be "priority power generation". The author believes that by that time, they will be priority, that is, they will not be priority, which will affect the export, water, nuclear, waste heat, residual pressure and residual gas power generation, which are also the second-class priority power generation, and they will not be given much priority. It is a little mean to do bad things with good intentions...
the establishment of the priority power generation and utilization system, on the one hand, reflects the characteristics of China's socialist market economy in the power reform, Through certain administrative regulations to protect people's livelihood and industrial policies, it reduces concerns and objections in the reform process, and is conducive to the promotion of market-oriented reform; On the other hand, it is also equivalent to drawing a boundary - "the plan is the plan, and the market is the market", which defines what is protected by the plan - new energy, heating and electricity security, and which is market competition - the above other and newly put into operation units, each of which has its own management and responsibility - the plan reflects fairness, people's livelihood, industrial policy and security, and the market reflects the commodity attributes of the survival of the fittest and the restoration of electricity Reflect the relationship between supply and demand and allocate power resources - that is, the plan belongs to the plan and the market belongs to the market
one of the problems is the mismatch of priority power generation and consumption. The priority power generation and consumption plan of each province is formulated by each province, and the power supply structure and power consumption structure of each province are quite different. Without considering the cross provincial power, some provinces have priority power consumption greater than (class I) priority power generation (such as some southeast coastal areas). Of course, most provinces have priority power generation greater than priority power consumption, which is related to the wider range of priority power generation mentioned above, It is also related to the "high" benchmark electricity price of current priority power generation (if the market-oriented electricity price is high, the "scientific and technological giants" of enterprises and scientific research institutes such as China composite materials society, Ningbo Institute of materials technology and engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Evonik industrial group, Sinopec Beijing Research Institute of chemical industry, Wanhua Chemical Group Co., Ltd., shuangqian group, Dow group, Bayer new materials, CSR, AVIC Beijing Aerospace Materials Research Institute, etc Will appear and exchange, and the situation may be the opposite). There is a certain structural contradiction - the market-oriented power generation and consumption are matched, which determines who has the highest power generation and consumption priority and who determines the upper limit of the deregulation plan (that is, the market power). However, the power generation and consumption sides make their own decisions, that is, when the current market-oriented electricity price is lower than the benchmark electricity price, eligible users have the incentive to participate in market transactions, while in the same case, the power generation side does not have much incentive to actively enter the market transactions, and both want to enjoy the benchmark priority power generation right. Of course, if the market price is higher than the benchmark electricity price, The willingness of both sides to participate in the market will be reversed - this is the imbalance and contradiction inherent in the "dual track system" of planned electricity and market electricity
the above contradictions are particularly obvious in the three northern regions: on the power generation side, the installed wind power accounts for a large proportion in the three northern regions, and heating units are required in winter to "determine electricity by heat", which is a strong priority for power generation. On the power side, residents in the three northern regions and other tertiary industries have a particularly low proportion of preferential power consumption, while high energy consuming industries account for a large proportion of secondary industries. At present, they all have a strong willingness to enter the market for transactions, and local governments also have a strong incentive to open the market in order to support the development of local high energy consuming enterprises. The absolute value of market-oriented direct trading electricity in the three northern regions may not be the largest (lower than that in Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and other places), but the relative value of electricity consumption in the whole local society must be among the best (Inner Mongolia, Shanxi). This contradiction has caused the "dissatisfaction" of both the generator and the user with the market-oriented transaction - the power generation side said that I am wind power, I want heat supply, I am the power supply support point to ensure power safety, I want to give priority to power generation, and I do not participate in the market; The user side said that I do not belong to the scope of preferential power purchase. The country should enlarge the proportion of market-oriented trading electricity every year, and I want to participate in the market. Under the condition that the electricity market in the province is basically fixed, the three northern regions can only strive for power transmission, and power transmission is another big topic, so this paper will not elaborate here
from this point of view, it should be the southeast region that should continue and liberalize the power generation plan more. Although the market-oriented electricity is already at the level of 100 billion, there are few constraints on the proportion of priority power purchase and priority power generation (mainly a kind of priority here), and there is still a lot of room to continue to liberalize the plan. Otherwise, if there are more plans, it will be easy to do what the market should do - allocate power generation and consumption. The situation is: Resources - allocate power planning not through market competition but through administrative orders. Who among many power generation and consumption enterprises can more participate in market transactions, the administrative hand will always have the power to touch randomly, and it is also easy to have rent-seeking. That is to say, we should change "the plan belongs to the plan, and the market belongs to the plan" to "the plan belongs to the plan, and the market belongs to the market"
the same typical metering, mixing and pouring equipment sends data into the control system through the mass flowmeter. Unless the three northern regions, which account for a large proportion of market-oriented trading electricity (which has exceeded the first-class priority generation limit), continue to deepen reform, learn from the advanced experience of foreign power spot market, and use market methods to solve some of the "should" things (fairness, people's livelihood, industrial policy and safety), The "dual track system" of planned electricity and market electricity is changed into a single track system of the market, and the market approach is used to ensure the priority purchase of electricity and the consumption of renewable energy. The performance consumption of plastic granulation in China accounts for almost half of the total industrial energy consumption, which is nearly 1.5% higher than that in the UK. People's livelihood heating, peak and frequency regulation and electrical support point safety. Otherwise, it must be tinkering on the basis of the dual track system. It is necessary to participate in market-oriented trading of electricity by controlling the maximum and minimum number of all kinds of power generation enterprises (individual power plants are considered to eat more and occupy more, individual power plants have insufficient preferential heating electricity, or the electricity support point requires that electricity must be purchased from the market). It is not allowed to buy more or buy less, and it is not possible to limit or punish them through various regulations. This will continue, Contradictions will inevitably accumulate until the "two track system" cannot be implemented. That is, either cancel all plans, make major changes, change "the market belongs to the market, and the plan belongs to the market" to "all marketization", or return to the dual track system, and change "the market belongs to the market, and the plan belongs to the market" to "the plan belongs to the plan, and the market belongs to the market"